In 1968, students protested against the authoritarian measures taken by then-president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz. Zocalo definition is - the public square of a Mexican city or town : plaza. He had the Temo become the cathedral. Zócalo actually means "pedestal" or "plinth." FIND YOUR URBAN SANCTUARY IN THE HEART OF THE ZOCALO, MEXICO CITY. As the city and its empire expanded, this area remained at the center, the site of the emperor's palace and principal temples. © 2020 Lonely Planet. [32] One curious event was the building of a temporary ice-skating rink of about 3,200 m2 in the middle of the Zócalo, for use by the city's residents for free in the winter of 2007. Even so, it is almost always called the Zócalo today. See 2,116 traveller reviews, 1,465 photos, and cheap rates for Zocalo Central, ranked #13 of 409 hotels in Mexico City and rated 4.5 of 5 at Tripadvisor. [4], In 1878, Antonio Escandon donated a kiosk to the city which was set over and on top of Santa Anna's base. This makes it a popular place for protests, and it is often dotted with protesters in makeshift camps and banners. This event also resulted in renaming the square as the "Plaza of the Constitution." The statue eventually made its way to this museum, but not until it was practically buried in one of the back patios of the Royal and Pontifical University until after Independence. The scene is set against a Day of the Dead parade, which actually had never been held at the square before. This is done by groups looking to reassert the superiority of indigenous ethnic bloodlines (La Raza) and pre-Hispanic culture. The north–south road was called Tepeyac–Iztapalapa (for the locations north and south it led to). There are daily impromptu shows of Aztec dancers dancing to drums, wearing feathered headdresses and anklets made of concha shells. The southern half was called the "Plaza Mayor" (Main Square) and the northern one was called the "Plaza Chica" (Small Square). The Zócalo was a meeting place for protests for 1 May. Travelocity Price Guarantee . former mayor Marcelo Ebrard launched a campaign to perform maintenance works in the Historic Center (which, because of Congressional reduction of the annual budget of the local government, was largely supported with the money collected in the streets for that purpose by government officials). The Danzantes Aztecas dance daily in the plaza, wearing snakeskin loincloths and shell ankle bracelets and chanting in Náhuatl. Measuring 220m from north to south, and 240m from east to west, it’s one of the world’s largest city squares. When the monument was finished, the wooden base was replaced by an oval one of stone measuring 113 meters by 95.5 meters, with its own balustrade and fountains at the corners created by José del Mazo. This large open-air square in the Centro Historico is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and home to the city's top attractions, including Metropolitan Cathedral, National Palace, and Great Temple archaeological site and museum. They choose to do the ceremony here not only because it is close to where such rites used to be performed before the Spaniards came, but also because they are right next to the symbols of "Spanish" ecclesiastical and secular power (the cathedral and National Palace, respectively), which they oppose.[28]. The streetcars and lighting were converted to electric power in 1894, and the Zócalo's paths were paved with asphalt in 1891. [4], On 4 and 5 December 1828, the Parián market, the most active of Mexico City's markets, was looted and damaged by a popular uprising. Just before 11 pm on each 15 September, the president of Mexico comes out onto the central balcony of the National Palace to perform the Grito de Dolores to the crowd gathered in the plaza. The heart of Mexico City is the Plaza de la Constitución. During the Decena Trágica (the ten days from 9 to 19 February 1913), the National Palace was bombarded from the nearby military fort, incidentally damaging the Zócalo. [35] In August 2008, a skateboarding/BMX event drew 50,000 young people on a Sunday afternoon. [citation needed], The pre-title sequence of the 2015 James Bond film Spectre takes place largely above the Zocalo, as Bond takes command of a SPECTRE getaway helicopter. Then-viceroy Juan Vicente Güemes Pacheco had the plaza repaved and the open gutters covered with stone blocks. "Lanzará GDF campaña "Yo quiero al Centro Histórico, "James Bond: Mexico City to hold first Day of the Dead parade thanks to Spectre", "2 parades will celebrate Day of the Dead in Mexico City", "Leftist's supporters paralyze Mexico City Center", "Mexicans protest nationwide against crime wave", "Llegan camiones de acarreados al Zócalo previo al Grito", "18,000 Mexicans Strip for Artist's Photo", "Canta Shakira ante 210 mil personas en el Zócalo, reporta SSP", "Concierto del Zocalo dejó 70 jovenes lesionados", "El Zócalo recibirá a 250 mil personas para concierto de Paul McCartney", "Deleita Justin Bieber a 210 mil fans en el Zócalo [Justin Bieber] – 12/06/2012 | Periódico Zócalo", "El 'show' de Roger Waters en el Zócalo – La Jornada", "A centuries-old Mexican tradition has been transformed by James Bond", Colegio de San Ignacio de Loyola Vizcaínas, Convent of Jesús María and Our Lady of Mercy, Parish of Jesús María and Our Lady of Mercy, House of the First Print Shop in the Americas, Museum of Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, Palace of the Inquisition (Museum of Mexican Medicine), Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, now Mexico City (Museum of the Constitutions), Palace of the Counts of San Mateo de Valparaiso, House of the Count de la Torre Cosío y la Cortina, Virgilio Uribe Rowing and Canoeing Course, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zócalo&oldid=989421200, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 21:56. It also changed the ecological system that supported birds and fish populations and allowed for Indian cultivation of crops. [15] The plaza deteriorated until, by the 1970s, all that was left were light poles and a large flagpole in the center. The Zocalo, Mexico City, has always been at the heart of capital stretching from the Aztec era through to the present day. The modern Zócalo in Mexico City is 57,600 m2 (240 m × 240 m). Ver más vídeos en español: http://bit.ly/2qIOfQO If you visit Mexico City, you really shouldn't miss seeing the Zócalo and surrounding area. Die Plaza de la Constitución (dt. Thousands rallied here in protest when Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas lost against Carlos Salinas in a presidential election widely believed to have been rigged in 1988. [4], A symbolic move upon Independence was the dismantling and removal of the equestrian monument to Charles IV from Plaza. The other stalls concentrated on more mundane merchandise. In 1914, the ash trees planted in the previous century (which meanwhile had grown considerably) were taken out; new footpaths, grassy areas, and garden space were created; and palm trees were planted in each corner of the plaza. The Mexico City zócalo – or to give it its full title, Plaza de la Constitución – is one of the Mexican capital’s most well-known landmarks and plazas. Zocalo is minutes away. This was done to avoid mass protests in the Zócalo following the disputed presidential election between Felipe Calderón and López Obrador. He also had a fountain installed in each corner. On the south side, was the Portal of the Flowers (Flores), named so after its owner, Maria Gutierrez Flores de Caballerias. This square was the center of Tenochtitlan before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors and still remains the political and religious center, centuries after. Accommodations at Zócalo Central Hotel have been crafted to surround guests in a world of sophistication and warmth. [17], Recently,[when?] On its east side is the Palacio Nacional (the presidential palace), on the north is the Catedral Metropolitana, and on the south are the city government offices. Both of these were behind a small drainage canal that ran east–west. It stayed this way until 1866 when the Paseo (path) del Zócalo was created in response to the numbers of people who were using the plaza to take walks. [24] On 30 August 2008, a peaceful protest against crime and violence filled the Zócalo to capacity. 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